Humans are the only creatures of God who are gifted with reason, then the specificity of the human being has given the ability to analyze a thing in his life. Thus in relation to humans could not be separated from the name of history, because the history of the human to learn and analyze the events that happened in the past. History is a reflection of our past lives and can be used as material self instropeksi. Similarly, the history of Islamic civilization which is a tool for studying the events that happened in the past or as a reference for more to promote Islam than ever before.
Islamic civilization is a very extensive study. As described in this paper, that Islamic civilization is closely related to culture, but still are two different things. In the culture of civilization covers too, but not vice versa.
To find out more about the definition and scope of the history of Islamic civilization, will be explained in more detail in this paper.
1. Understanding History of Islamic Civilization
1. Understanding History
Etymologically derived from the Arabic word "syajarah" which means "tree of life" and that we know in language that is Ilmiyah History .
1. Characteristics history
Characteristics of the discipline of history can be viewed based on 3 orientation
First: the history is the knowledge of the events, incidents and events in the human condition in the past in relation to the circumstances of the present.
Second: knowledge of legal history is a law that looks over the life of the past, which was obtained through investigation and analysis of past events or events.
Third: ssebagai history of philosophy is based on knowledge about changes in societal change, in other words the history of this kind is the science of the process of a society.
1. Usefulness history
History has an important meaning in life as well as history has several purposes, among the uses of history among other things:
First: To keleatarian group identity and strengthen the resilience of the group for survival.
Second: useful history lesson and a role model as a collection of examples in the past, so that history provides, more specifically the principle of benefit for survival.
Third: history serves as a means of understanding about life and death.
Thus the importance of history in this life in the Qur'an itself there are several stories of the prophets and leaders of the past include:
2. The Meaning of Islamic Civilization
From the root word is born madana tamaddun noun which literally means civilization (civilization), which also means the city-based culture (city base culture) or culture of the city (culture of the city). Among Arab writers, words tamaddun used - if not wrong - for the first time by Jurji Zaydan in a book title chronicle al-Tamaddun al-Islami (Islamic Civilization History), published 1902-1906. Since then word Tamaddun used widely among Muslims. In the Malay world tamaddun used for the sense of civilization. In Iran people with slightly different uses and madaniyat tamaddon term. However, in Turkey people using the root madina or madana or madaniyyah use the term medeniyet and medeniyeti. The Arabs themselves at the present time use the word hadara to civilization, but the word is not widely accepted non-Arab Muslims who mostly prefer the term tamaddun. In Indo-Pakistan subcontinent tamaddun used only for the understanding of culture, while using the term civilization tahdhib .
The word civilization is often associated with cultures and even, many western writers who mengidentikan "culture" and "civilization" of Islam. Islamic civilization is often associated with Arab civilization despite the fact that between the Arabs and Islam can still be distinguished. As for distinguishing between these cultures is by an increase in civilization at the time of ignorance that comes from ignorance. This eventually changed when Islam came to that taken by the prophet Muhammad in Arabic. So in his time and then developed into a civilization of Islam which together with the Arab nations thrive even miss the other parts of the world, Islam is not just a religion but a perfect source of Islamic civilization itself.
The foundation of Islamic civilization dalah Islamic culture especially ideal form, while the runway kebudaan Islam is the religion . In Islamic society is not like other religious believers, religion is not culture but to give birth culture. If culture is the result of creativity, feeling and intention of man, the religion of Islam is the revelation of civilization.
Civilization is a culture associated with science and technology where cultures are not only influential in the region of origin but also affect other areas that make-daeerah culture evolves.
3. The history of Islamic civilization
The history of Islamic civilization or progress is defined as perekembangan Islamic culture in the perspective of history, and Islamic civilizations have berbgai, among whom were kind pengetian
First: the history of Islamic civilization is a sense of progress and level of intelligence that produced in one period of Islamic rule starting from the period of the prophet Muhammad to the development of Islamic power today.
Second: the history of Islamic civilization is the result of the results achieved by the Islamic Ummah in the field kesustraan, science and art.
Third: the history of Islamic civilization is the progress of political or Islamic power that acts to protect the Islamic worldview, especially in connection with religious worship, the use of language, customs and social life .
4. Islam as a Civilization
Perhaps, when the Prophet received a report that his invitation to the Roman Emperor, Heraclitus to hold the same beliefs (kalimatun Sawa ') was rejected with the smooth, the prophet only a short comment "sa uhajim al-Rum min uqri Baiti" (I'll fight Roman from my house .) Sayings of the Prophet is not the drums of war, he simply diplomacy. There was no physical threat and also did not hurt the opposition. Speech that just shows the greatness of the message it carries, that of a small community in the arid Arabian peninsula, the Prophet of Islam believe will develop into a future civilization will defeat the Romans.
And the Prophet was, in the year 700's, no more than half a century after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (632 AD), Muslims had spread to West Asia and North Africa, two regions that used to fall into the hands of Alexander the Great. Furthermore, the Muslims entered the area that has long been dominated by a Christian with no significant resistance. According to William R Cook in the year 711 AD - 713 AD the Christian kingdoms in the Mediterranean region in the hands of Muslims with no fighting, though in the 7th century the region was quite prosperous. Even for approximately 300 years, almost the entire region can be a Muslim. Only in the eleventh century the Christian kingdoms in the region started against Muslims. Demitri Gutas clearly recognized:
"... .. In the year 732 AD of power and a new civilization was established and prepared in accordance with the religion was revealed to Muhammad, Islam, a growing area of Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent until the Spanish and Pyrennes."
Gutas even stated that with the emergence of Islamic civilization, Egypt for the first time, since the conquests of Alexander the Great, may be united politically, administratively and economically with Persia and India within a period of time. Economic and cultural differences that separate the civilized worlds, East and West, before Islam came who is limited by two major rivers simply just disappeared.
Of course the fall of Rome is not caused by a single factor. Edward Gibbon in The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire states that the second period of decline and fall of the Roman Empire caused by five factors: first in the era of Justinian much power to give authority to the Roman Empire in the East; both the invasion of Italy by the Lombards; third conquest of some province of Asia and Africa by the Arabs who are Muslim; fourth popular uprising against the Romans themselves kings of Constantinople, the weak, and the last appearance of Charlemagne in the year 800 AD founded the German Empire in the West.
So the cause of the fall of Rome is a combination of various factors, such as problems of the Christian religion, moral decadence, a crisis of leadership, financial and military. And among the most important factor is the arrival of Roman kajatuhan cause of Islam. The statement of the Prophet that diplomatically it seems evident. The Prophet is never going to attack Western and Eastern Roman, but the coming wave of Islamic civilization has actually become the factors causing the fall of Rome. It is also a proof that Islam as a din that produce tamaddun acceptable to the other nations of the Arab nation. Because Islam brought an orderly system of life and dignity, so as to bring prosperity and welfare of the community. So Islam is received by non-Arab nations because of the universality of his teachings, aka force jets outlook on life.
When the Persian Emperor Ebrewez, grandson of Emperor Khosru I, tore up the letter of the Prophet, saying: "Pantaskah people had written me while he is my slave", the Prophet had a short comment "May Allah tear his kingdom." And the Prophet replied again proved that after the son of Emperor named Qabaz seized power by killing the Emperor Ebrewez, his own father. Qabaz was then in power only four months old. Furthermore, the Persian empire was changing up to ten times in a period of four years. It is completely shattered. Finally, people lifted the emperor Yazdajir and at this time that the Persian army was helpless when Islam came. Since then the Persian Empire was collapsing.
As his attitude toward the Roman empire, the Prophet did not leave the house to drop (tear) the Persian Empire. The Prophet of Islam which is only menyerbarkan a civilization that has a concept of God, humanity and a clear and orderly life. In Indonesia, Islam entered without war. Islam entered and accepted by people who already have a strong Hindu faith. But because the power of the Islamic concept easily penetrate into the world view of society archipelago that time, then in life overall. This is proof that Islam spread not only by the sword. Islam spread, control and save (convert) the people in the occupied areas. There is no exploitation of natural resources to be brought to the regions where Islam originated. No accretion of wealth for the Arab peninsula. There is no poverty due to the entry of Muslims into the occupied areas. Areas controlled or rescued Muslims became rich and prosperous. That's the nature of Islamic civilization very different from Western civilization exploitative .
5. Role and Function of Human Civilization As Constructor
In the Islamic perspective of humans as actors as well as the civilization maker has a core position and role, position and the position of humans in profiled in the Qur'an are:
First: humans are the most perfect creation of God and foremost God. As a logical consequence of humans have the freedom that is responsible, in the broadest sense of the extent and the dimensions of differentiation which pasa turn is a mandate that must be endured.
Second: in order to carry out his duties as a creature who in mulyakan God, not another case of God's creation. Everything has the same pressure that is for humans to use their minds only to the positive things in accordance with nature and the call of his conscience, and for people who are very tercella teperdaya by the passions apart from humanity and fitrahnya.dan in this case
B. Scope of History of Islamic Civilization
Sign his form of civilization, according to Ibn Khaldun is the development of science such as physics, chemistry, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, optics, medicine and so on. Even the advanced level of a civilization dependent or related to the withdrawal of advanced science. So the substance of civilization's most important in Ibn Khaldun's theory is science. But science can not possibly live without the existence of an active community developing it. Because it is a civilization or a umran must start from a "small community" and when the community was enlarged it will be born umran big. Communities that usually arise in urban or even form a city. From the city that will form the community that has a variety of activities arising therefrom life kemasyarakat and finally a system was born of a State. City of Medina, the city of Cordova, Baghdad, city of Samara, the city of Cairo and other cities are few examples of which comes from the community which gave birth to the State. The signs of birth and life of a umran for Ibn Khaldun berkembanganya include technology, (textiles, food, and shelter / architecture), the Economy, the growing practice of medicine, arts (calligraphy, music, literature etc.). Behind the signs of the birth of a civilization that there is an active and creative community to produce knowledge.
But behind the factor of activity and creativity of the people there are still other factors, namely religion, spirituality or faith. The contemporary Muslim scholars generally accept the notion that religion is a principle of civilization, rejecting religion is barbarism. Sayyid Qutb states that faith is the source of civilization. Although the Islamic paradaban organizational structure and shape are materially different, but the principles and values and their human is the one permanently. The principles it is devotion to God (taqwa), belief in the oneness of God (monotheism), the supremacy of humanity over all things material, the development of human values and the preservation of animal desire, respect for the family, aware of its function as the Caliph of Allah on Earth according to the instructions and commands (the Shari'a).
Since Islam was born in Arabia, the contents of the scope of the history of Islamic civilization discuss riwayan prophet Muhammad SAW as the bearer of revelation of god since he was not born until he died, the struggle within the struggle prophet Muhammad spread the religion of Islam, the progress of Islam is forwarded by the disintregrasi time friend, the setbacks, the spread of Islam dibelahan western world Islamic relations developments in our country as well as centers of Islamic civilization.
From what has been presented in the paper, it can be concluded that understanding the history of Islamic civilization as perekembangan or cultural advancement of Islam in historical perspective. While the scope of which is to explain about the development of Islam since the time of the prophet Muhammad, a period of development, the disintegerasi, the setbacks, the development of Islam in the West and the rest of the world, as well as centers of Islamic development.
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